Baseline Needs More Love: On Simple Word-Embedding-Based Models and Associated Pooling Mechanisms

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Authors Yizhe Zhang, Ricardo Henao, Wenlin Wang, Lawrence Carin, Dinghan Shen, Guoyin Wang, Chunyuan Li, Qinliang Su, Martin Renqiang Min
Journal/Conference Name ACL 2018 7
Paper Category
Paper Abstract Many deep learning architectures have been proposed to model the compositionality in text sequences, requiring a substantial number of parameters and expensive computations. However, there has not been a rigorous evaluation regarding the added value of sophisticated compositional functions. In this paper, we conduct a point-by-point comparative study between Simple Word-Embedding-based Models (SWEMs), consisting of parameter-free pooling operations, relative to word-embedding-based RNN/CNN models. Surprisingly, SWEMs exhibit comparable or even superior performance in the majority of cases considered. Based upon this understanding, we propose two additional pooling strategies over learned word embeddings: (i) a max-pooling operation for improved interpretability; and (ii) a hierarchical pooling operation, which preserves spatial (n-gram) information within text sequences. We present experiments on 17 datasets encompassing three tasks: (i) (long) document classification; (ii) text sequence matching; and (iii) short text tasks, including classification and tagging. The source code and datasets can be obtained from https:// github.com/dinghanshen/SWEM.
Date of publication 2018
Code Programming Language Multiple
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