Gradient Projection Algorithms and Software for Arbitrary Rotation Criteria in Factor Analysis

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Authors Coen A. Bernaards, Robert I. Jennrich
Journal/Conference Name Educational and Psychological Measurement
Paper Category
Paper Abstract Almost all modern rotation of factor loadings is based on optimizing a criterion, for example, the quartimax criterion for quartimax rotation. Recent advancements in numerical methods have led to general orthogonal and oblique algorithms for optimizing essentially any rotation criterion. All that is required for a specific application is a definition of the criterion and its gradient. The authors present the implementations of gradient projection algorithms, both orthogonal and oblique, as well as a catalogue of rotation criteria and corresponding gradients. Software for these is downloadable and free; a specific version is given for each of the computing environments used most by statisticians. Examples of rotation methods are presented by applying them to a loading matrix from Wehmeyer and Palmer.
Date of publication 2005
Code Programming Language R
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