Small-Sample Adjustments for Wald-Type Tests Using Sandwich Estimators

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Authors Michael P Fay, B I Graubard
Journal/Conference Name Biometrics
Paper Category
Paper Abstract The sandwich estimator of variance may be used to create robust Wald-type tests from estimating equations that are sums of K independent or approximately independent terms. For example, for repeated measures data on K individuals, each term relates to a different individual. These tests applied to a parameter may have greater than nominal size if K is small, or more generally if the parameter to be tested is essentially estimated from a small number of terms in the estimating equation. We offer some practical modifications to these robust Wald-type tests, which asymptotically approach the usual robust Wald-type tests. We show that one of these modifications provides exact coverage for a simple case and examine by simulation the modifications applied to the generalized estimating equations of Liang and Zeger (1986), conditional logistic regression, and the Cox proportional hazard model.
Date of publication 2001
Code Programming Language R
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