Vandermonde decomposition of multilevel Toeplitz matrices with application to multidimensional super-resolution

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Authors Z. Yang, L. Xie and P. Stoica
Journal/Conference Name IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Paper Category
Paper Abstract The Vandermonde decomposition of Toeplitz matrices, discovered by Carathéodory and Fejér in the 1910s and rediscovered by Pisarenko in the 1970s, forms the basis of modern subspace methods for 1D frequency estimation. Many related numerical tools have also been developed for multidimensional (MD), especially 2D, frequency estimation; however, a fundamental question has remained unresolved as to whether an analog of the Vandermonde decomposition holds for multilevel Toeplitz matrices in the MD case. In this paper, an affirmative answer to this question and a constructive method for finding the decomposition are provided when the matrix rank is lower than the dimension of each Toeplitz block. A numerical method for searching for a decomposition is also proposed when the matrix rank is higher. The new results are applied to studying MD frequency estimation within the recent super-resolution framework. A precise formulation of the atomic ℓ0 norm is derived using the Vandermonde decomposition. Practical algorithms for frequency estimation are proposed based on relaxation techniques. Extensive numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of these algorithms compared to the existing atomic norm and subspace methods.
Date of publication 2016
Code Programming Language MATLAB

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